Crescent-shaped breads have been made since the Renaissance, and crescent-shaped cakes possibly since antiquity.[2] Croissants have long been a staple of Austrian and French bakeries and pâtisseries. In the late 1970s, the development of factory-made, frozen, pre-formed but unbaked dough made them into a fast food which can be freshly baked by unskilled labor. The croissant bakery, notably the La Croissanterie chain, was explicitly a French response to American-style fast food,[3] and as of 2008 30–40% of the croissants sold in French bakeries and patisseries were baked from frozen dough.[4]The kipferl, the origin of croissant can be dated back to at least the 13th century in Austria, and came in various shapes.[5] The kipferl can be made plain or with nuts or other fillings (some consider the rugelach a form of kipferl).[6] Some Egyptians claim, arguably, that the kipferl may have been based on the feteer meshaltet pastry known to the Egyptians.[7][8]